How much of the world’s energy comes from fossil fuels? Is it possible to replace everything with renewable energy? -Technology News, Firstpost

How are fossil fuels formed, why do they emit carbon dioxide, and how much energy does the world supply? And what are the potential sources of renewable energy to replace fossil fuels?

Fossil fuels were formed over millions of years from the debris of flora and fauna trapped in sediments and converted by heat and pressure.

many Coal was formed Carboniferous (360-300 million years ago), the era of amphibians and vast wetland forests. The fossilization of trees has moved large amounts of carbon from the air to the ground, reducing atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO₂) levels. This is enough to bring the Earth completely close. Frozen state..

When fossil fuels are burned, their carbon reacts with oxygen to form carbon dioxide.

This climate change, coupled with the evolution of fungi that can digest dead trees and release their carbon into the atmosphere, increases the coal formation period. the end..

Petroleum and natural gas (methane, CH4) were also formed from marine plankton rather than from trees, and over a long period of time.Maui oil fields in New Zealand are relatively youngIt dates back to the early era, about 50 million years ago.

Burn the buried sunshine

When fossil fuels are burned, their carbon reacts with oxygen to form carbon dioxide. NS Energy originally provided by the sunCarbon, which has been stored in chemical bonds for millions of years, is released and returned to the atmosphere. A simple example is the burning of natural gas. One molecule of methane and two molecules of oxygen combine to produce carbon dioxide and water.

CH₄ + 2O₂ → CO₂ + 2H₂O

Burning 1 kilogram of natural gas emits 15kWh of energy in the form of infrared rays (radiant heat). This is a fair amount.

To stop the deterioration of climate change, we need to stop burning fossil fuels for energy. It’s a difficult order.If not Fossil fuels provide 84 percent Of all the energy used by human civilization. (New Zealand is less dependent on fossil fuels, 65 percent.. )

There are many possible sources of renewable or low carbon energy. Nuclear, hydraulic, wind, solar, geothermal, biomass (burning plants for energy), biofuels (making liquid or gaseous fuels from plants). Several tidal power plants are in operation and experiments on wave and ocean current generation are underway.

But of these, only two have the ability to scale up to the incredible amount of energy we use: wind and solar.Despite remarkable growth (doubling within 5 years), the wind 2.2% All energy, and the sun 1.1 percent..

Transition to renewable energy

One benefit of savings, which suggests the possibility of a complete conversion to renewable energy, is that much of the energy from fossil fuels is wasted.

First, fossil fuel extraction, refining and transportation Occupy 12 percent Of all energy use. Second, fossil fuels are often burned in very inefficient ways, for example in the internal combustion engine of automobiles.In a world based on renewable energy half Energy in the first place.

The potential solar and wind resources are enormous and costs are falling rapidly.Some have Insisted By 2050, we will be able to move to fully renewable energies such as power lines, energy storage and fully synthetic liquid fuels.

one scenario We see New Zealand building 20 GW of solar and 9 GW of wind power.That’s not unreasonable — Australia Built so much In 5 years. I have to hurry. Construction of renewable energy power plants takes time, industry It takes time to scale up.

Other factors to consider

Switching to renewable energy solves the problems of fuel and climate change, but not the problem of increased resource use. Building a whole new energy system requires a lot of material, some of which are rare and difficult to extract. Unlike burned fuels, metals can be recycled, but they are not useful when building new systems for the first time.

research Conclusion Some metals (especially cobalt, cadmium, nickel, gold and silver) are deficient, but “a fully renewable energy system is unlikely to deplete metal reserves and resources by 2050.” It states. There is some loss of efficiency, but there is also the opportunity to replace it with a more common material.

But many metals are very Localization.. Half of the world’s cobalt reserves are in the Democratic Republic of the Congo, half of lithium is in Chile, and 70% of the rare earths used in wind turbines and electric motors are in China.

Wasted consumption is another matter. New technologies (robots, drones, internet) and economic growth will lead to increased use of energy and resources. The rich use disproportionate amounts of energy, model excessive consumption, waste Others are eager, including the emerging wealthy in developing countries.

A study analyzing household-level emissions across European countries found The top 1% of the population with the highest carbon dioxide emissions each produced 55 tonnes of CO2 equivalent, compared to a median of 10 tonnes in Europe.

Scientists warn about consumption by the wealthy Active Discussion How to reduce it while maintaining a stable society.

One way to turn these questions around is to start from the bottom up. What is the minimum energy required for basic human needs?

one study A “decent life” is considered to include comfortable housing, ample food and water, 10,000 km of travel per year, education, medical care and telecommunications for everyone on the planet. This requires about 4,000 kWh of energy per person per year, less than one-tenth of the energy currently used by New Zealanders, and has been found to be easily supplied by renewable energy.

All that carbon underground was ripe energy for picking. We chose it. But now is the time to stop.conversation

Robert McLachlan, Professor of Applied Mathematics, Massey University

This article will be republished from conversation Under a Creative Commons Original work..

How much of the world’s energy comes from fossil fuels? Is it possible to replace everything with renewable energy? -Technology News, Firstpost

Source link How much of the world’s energy comes from fossil fuels? Is it possible to replace everything with renewable energy? -Technology News, Firstpost

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