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NASA’s mission plan to intentionally collide with the asteroid moon

A spacecraft that deliberately collides with an asteroid is preparing to launch. The DART mission, or NASA’s double asteroid redirect test, takes off on a Vandenberg Space Force Base SpaceX Falcon 9 rocket at 10:20 pm on November 23. To do. After being launched in November, NASA will test the asteroid deflection technology in September 2022 to see how it affects the movement of asteroids in space. The target of this asteroid deflection technology is Dimorphos, a small moon that orbits near the asteroid. Earth asteroid Didymos. This will be the first full-scale demonstration of an institution of this type of technology on behalf of planet defense. Near-Earth objects are asteroids and comets whose orbits place them within 30 million miles of Earth. Detecting near-Earth object (NEO) threats that can cause serious harm is the main focus of NASA and other space organizations around the world. Didymos and Dimorphos 20 years ago, including near-Earth asteroids. There is a month around which the binary system is called Didymos. In Greek, Didymos means “twin”. It was used to represent how a small moon, 525 feet in diameter, orbits a large asteroid about 0.5 miles in diameter. At the time, the Moon was known as Didymos b.Kleomenis Tsiganis, a planetary scientist at the University of Aristotle in Thessaloniki and a member of the DART team, and proposed the name of the Moon as Dimorphos. “Dimorphos means” two forms “. It reflects the state of this object as the first object whose orbital “shape” has changed significantly by humanity, in this case due to the influence of DART, “says Tsiganis. “Thus, it will be the first object known to humans in two very different ways, one seen by DART before the collision and the other by the European Space Agency spatula a few years later. In September 2022, Didymos and Dimorphos are relatively close to Earth, within 6,835,083 miles (11 million kilometers) from our planet. According to NASA, it’s the perfect time for a DART mission to occur. DART deliberately collides with Dimorphos, changing the movement of the asteroid in space. This collision is recorded by the Italian Space Agency-provided companion CubeSat or the cube satellite LICIA Cube. CubeSat moves over DART and unfolds from DART before the collision, so you can record what’s happening. Astronomers can compare the observations from Earth-based telescopes before and after the dynamic collision of DART to determine the orbital period of Dimorphos. Tom Statler, a DART program scientist at NASA headquarters, said in a statement. “This is an important measure of how the asteroid responded to our biased efforts.” A few years after the impact, the European Space Agency’s Heramission will carry out a follow-up study of Didymos and Dimorphos. .. In the case of the NASA Planetary Defense Coordination Office during the development of the DART mission, the team of missions managed by the Johns Hopkins University Applied Physics Laboratory is under international cooperation known as Asteroid Impact and Deflection Assessment (AIDA). Work with the spatula mission team. “DART is the first step in testing dangerous asteroid deflection,” said Andrea Riley, NASA Headquarters DART Program Executive, in a statement. “Potentially dangerous asteroids are a global concern and we are pleased to work with colleagues in Italy and Europe to collect the most accurate data possible from this dynamic impact deflection demonstration.” The mission of firstsDimorphos is that DART collides with Dimorphos moving at 14,763.8 miles per hour, compared to asteroids whose size can pose a threat to the Earth. DART’s camera and autonomous navigation software, called DRACO, help spacecraft detect and collide with Dimorphos. This fast impact only changes the velocity of Dimorphos as it orbits Didymos 1%. The orbital period of the moon changes by a few minutes. The changes can be observed and measured from ground telescopes on Earth. According to the European Space Agency, this is the first time that humans have changed the dynamics of small solar system bodies in a measurable way. Three years later, Hera arrives to study Dimorphos in detail and measure the physical properties of the Moon, studying the effects of DART and studying its orbit. This may sound like a long time between impact and follow-up, but it is based on lessons learned in the past. In July 2005, NASA’s Deep Impact spacecraft launched £ 815. Copper collision with Tempel 1 However, the collision released so much dust and ice that the spacecraft could not see the resulting craters. But NASA’s Stardust mission in 2011 was able to characterize its impact — a 492-foot gouache. Together, the valuable data collected by DART and heroes contributes to the planet defense strategy. Near-Earth asteroids that may collide with our planet.

A spacecraft that deliberately collides with an asteroid is preparing for launch.

The DART mission, or NASA’s Double Asteroid Redirection Test, will be launched from Vandenberg Air Force Base in California on a SpaceX Falcon 9 rocket at 10:20 pm PT on November 23.

After launching in November, NASA will test asteroid deflection technology in September 2022 to see how it affects the movement of near-Earth asteroids in space.

The target of this asteroid deflection technology is Dimorphos, a small moon orbiting the near-Earth asteroid Didymos. This will be the first full-scale demonstration of an institution of this type of technology on behalf of planet defense.

Near-Earth objects are asteroids and comets whose orbits place them within 30 million miles of Earth. Detecting near-Earth object (NEO) threats that can cause serious harm is a major focus of NASA and other space organizations around the world.

Didymos and Dimorphos

Twenty years ago, a binary system containing a near-Earth asteroid found that the moon was orbiting it. This is called Didymos. In Greek, Didymos means “twin”. It was used to represent how a small moon, 525 feet in diameter, orbits a large asteroid about 0.5 miles in diameter. At that time, the moon was known as Didymos b.

Cleomenis Ziganis, a planetary scientist at the University of Aristotle in Thessaloniki and a member of the DART team, proposed the name of the moon as Dimorphos.

“Dimorphos, which means” two forms, “reflects the state of this object as the first object whose orbital” form “has changed significantly by humankind, in this case by the influence of DART,” Tsiganis said. Says. “Thus, it will be the first object known to humans in two very different ways, one seen by DART before the collision and the other by the European Space Agency spatula a few years later. You can. “

In September 2022, Didymos and Dimorphos are relatively close to Earth, within 6,835,083 miles (11 million kilometers) of Earth. It’s the perfect time for a DART mission to occur.

According to NASA, DART deliberately collides with Dimorphos, altering the movement of asteroids in space. This collision is recorded by the Italian Space Agency-provided companion CubeSat or the cube satellite LICIA Cube. CubeSat moves over DART and unfolds from DART before the collision, so you can record what happened.

In a statement, NASA headquarters DART program scientist Tom Statler said, “Astronomers compare observations from Earth-based telescopes before and after DART’s dynamic impact, and what is the orbital period of Dimorphos? You will be able to judge if it has changed. ” “This is an important measure of how the asteroid responded to deflection.”

A few years after the impact, the European Space Agency’s Spatula Mission will carry out follow-up surveys of Didymos and Dimorphos.

The DART mission was developed for the NASA Planetary Defense Coordination Office and is managed by the Johns Hopkins University Applied Physics Laboratory, but the mission team is under international cooperation known as Asteroid Collision and Deflection Assessment (AIDA). Work with the spatula mission team.

“DART is the first step in testing how dangerous asteroids are deflected,” said Andrea Riley, NASA Headquarters DART Program Executive, in a statement. “Potentially dangerous asteroids are a global concern and we are pleased to work with colleagues in Italy and Europe to collect the most accurate data possible from this dynamic impact deflection demonstration.”

First mission

Dimorphos was chosen for this mission because its size is relative to asteroids that can pose a threat to Earth.

DART collides with Dimorphos moving at 14,763.8 mph. DART’s camera and autonomous navigation software, called DRACO, help spacecraft detect and collide with Dimorphos.

This fast impact orbits Didymos by 1%, so it only changes the velocity of Dimorphos. This sounds less, but the lunar orbital period changes by a few minutes. The changes can be observed and measured from ground telescopes on Earth. According to the European Space Agency, this is the first time that humans have changed the dynamics of small solar system bodies in a measurable way.

Three years after the collision, Hera arrives to study Dimorphos in detail, measure the physical properties of the Moon, study the DART collision, and study its orbit.

This may sound like a long time between impact and follow-up, but it’s based on lessons learned in the past.

In July 2005, NASA’s Deep Impact spacecraft launched an 815-pound copper impact on Comet Tempel 1. However, the impact released so much dust and ice that the spacecraft could not see the craters. But NASA’s Stardust mission in 2011 was able to characterize its impact — 492 feet of gouache.

Together, the valuable data collected by DART and heroes contributes to the planet defense strategy. In particular, we will understand what forces are needed to shift the orbit of near-Earth asteroids that may collide with our planet.

NASA’s mission plan to intentionally collide with the asteroid moon

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