The attack on Pearl Harbor on December 7, 1941 was one of the decisive moments in history.
Pearl Harbor in Hawaii — 80 years ago, on December 7, 1941, Japan surprised the United States with the attack on Pearl Harbor.
It was one of the decisive moments in American history.
A carefully planned and well-performed stroke eliminated the US Navy’s battleship forces as a possible threat to the southern expansion of the Japanese Empire. The United States, unprepared and now quite weak, was suddenly brought into World War II as a full-fledged combatant.
Eighteen months ago, President Franklin D. Roosevelt had transferred the US fleet to Pearl Harbor as a presumed deterrent to Japan’s aggression. The Japanese were deeply involved in the seemingly endless war that began against China in mid-1937 and had a terrible need for oil and other raw materials.
As the conquest continued, commercial access to these was gradually restricted. In July 1941, Western nations virtually suspended trade with Japan. Since then, the Pacific War has been virtually inevitable as desperate Japanese have planned to occupy the oil- and mineral-rich East Indies and Southeast Asia.
By late November 1941, peace talks were clearly nearing the end, and informed U.S. officials (and believed they were well informed through their ability to read Japanese diplomatic norms) were indie. , Malaya, and perhaps Japan’s attack on the Philippines. .. The prospect that Japan would also attack the east was completely unexpected.
The US fleet’s Pearl Harbor base is reachable by aircraft carriers, and the Japanese Navy secretly sent it across the Pacific with greater aerial striking power than previously seen in the world’s oceans. The plane collided just before 8 am on December 7.
In a short period of time, five of the eight battleships in Pearl Harbor sank or sank, and the rest were damaged. Several other ships and most Hawaii-based fighters were also knocked out, killing 2,403 Americans. Shortly thereafter, Japanese planes eliminated much of the US Air Force in the Philippines, and Japanese landed in Malaya.
These Japanese successes shocked and infuriated Americans who were previously divided into levels of intentional unity that were achieved without prior diplomatic proceedings and were rarely seen before or after.
For the next five months, until the Battle of the Coral Sea in early May, Japan’s widespread attacks proceeded without suffering from fruitful opposition. The morale of the United States and the Allies suffered accordingly.
Pearl Harbor Naval Station was recognized by both the US and Japanese Navy as a potential target for hostile aircraft carrier air forces. The US Navy was investigating this issue during some of the interwar “fleet issues.”
However, the distance from Japan and the shallow harbor, the belief that the Japanese Navy has many other urgent needs for aircraft carriers during the war, and the belief that intelligence agencies provide warnings are possible attacks. Pearl Harbor can be safely discounted, convincing senior US officers to be sexual.
During the interwar period, the Japanese reached a similar conclusion. However, while attacks on Southeast Asia and the East Indies were planned, the urgent need for their safety aspects reconsidered the issue with Admiral Isoroku Yamamoto, the dynamic commander of the Japanese Combined Fleet. I spurred on doing.
His staff realized that the attack was feasible given the superior capabilities of the new aircraft type, changes to aerial torpedoes, a high level of communication security, and a reasonable level of luck. Japan’s hopelessness helped Yamamoto convince the Marine High Command and the government to take on the venture in the event of an inevitable war, as it was more and more likely to happen in October and November 1941. rice field.
All six of Japan’s front-line aircraft carriers, Akagi, Kaga, Soryu, Hiryu, Shokaku, and Zuikaku, have been assigned to the mission. With more than 420 boarding aircraft, these ships consisted of the most powerful aircraft carrier task force ever assembled. Vice Admiral Chuichi Nagumo, an experienced and cautious officer, commanded the operation.
His attack on Pearl Harbor included fast battleships, cruisers, and destroyers, fueled by tankers as they passed through the Pacific Ocean. A large submarine pre-expeditionary force (five of which are equipped with midget submarines) scouts around Hawaii and dispatches them to Pearl Harbor to attack ships and torpedoes on American warships that may escape to the sea. bottom.
Under the highest secret, Nagumo will take his ship to the sea on November 26, 1941, to discontinue his mission if he is found or if diplomacy causes an unexpected miracle. I ordered. Before dawn on December 7, undiscovered and solid diplomatic prospects, the Pearl Harbor attack force was less than 300 miles north of Pearl Harbor.
The Japanese Navy included five Type A midget submarines in the attack on Pearl Harbor on December 7, 1941. The midget submarine, which was carried on board a large I-type submarine, was launched near the entrance to Pearl Harbor the night before the attack began.
One who was found trying to enter the harbor before dawn was attacked and sunk by the USS Ward (DD-139) in the first combat action of the unopened Pacific War. At least one of the dwarfs was able to enter the harbor and was sunk there by USS Monaghan (DD-354). Another Ha-19 failed to invade Pearl Harbor, drifted to the east coast of Oahu, and was captured the day after the attack.
Four of the five Pearl Harbor midget submarines were discovered. What was sunk by Ward was in the deep sea, about five miles from the entrance to Pearl Harbor by the Hawaii Undersea Research Laboratory in late August 2002. It remains in the sunken area as an element of the Pearl Harbor National Historic Landmark.
The other three were recovered. Ha-19 was recovered shortly after the attack and sunk by USS Monaghan a few days later. The third was discovered in 1960 at the entrance to the harbor. The submarines sunk by the USS Monaghan submarines were buried in landfills shortly after recovery. Two are on display. One was Ha-19 in Fredericksburg, Texas, and the other was discovered in 1960 on Etajima, Japan.
One of the five Pearl Harbor dwarfs has not yet been described. According to a recent study of photographs of the attack on Pearl Harbor, some observers have found that one of the midgets was outside “Battleship Row” when a Japanese torpedo bomber entered, USS Oklahoma (BB-37) or It claims that it may have fired a torpedo at USS. West Virginia (BB-48). This controversy is still controversial, but if it is true, the “missing” Type A target submarine may be lying undiscovered in Pearl Bay.
For Americans, memories of the attack on Pearl Harbor fueled their determination to fight during World War II. When much of Japan’s impressive power was lost in the Battle of Midway in early June 1942, that same memory overturned her conquest as a future threat to world peace, and she and her Germany and Italy. Triggered a relentless battle to eliminate allies.
Editor’s Note: The version of this story was originally Published by sister station KSDK In 2016.
Pearl Harbor Attack: Recalling the Attack 80 Years Later
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